A comprehensive list of the main content citations used in the Project Play report, including those from the Sports & Society Program and UF’s Sport Policy & Research Collaborative.


  1. Ogden, C.L. et al., “Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012,” Journal of the American Medical Association, 311(8):806-14, February 26, 2014.
  2. “F as in Fat: How Obesity Threatens America’s Future 2010,” Trust for America’s Health, 2012.  
  3. Kristensen, A. et al., “Reducing Childhood Obesity Through U.S. Federal Policy,” American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 47(5):604-612, November 2014.
  4. Troiano, Richard P. et al., “Physical Activity in the United States Measured by Accelerometer,” Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine, 40(1): 181–188, 2010.
  5. Sports & Fitness Industry Association (SFIA) data provided to the Aspen Institute, based on 2013 statistics.
  6. SFIA data provided to the Aspen Institute, based on 2013 statistics.
  7. Farrey, Tom, Game On: The All-American Race to Make Champions of Our Children, (New York: ESPN Books, 2008).
  8. SFIA data provided to the Aspen Institute, based on 2013 statistics. 
  9. Epstein, David, “Sports Should be Child’s Play,” New York Times, June 11, 2014,  A23. 
  10. Messner, Michael A. and Musto, Michela, “Where Are the Kids?,” Sociology of Sport Journal, 31:102-122, 2014.
  11. Visek, Amanda J. et al., “Fun Integration Theory: Towards Sustaining Children and Adolescents Sport Participation,” Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 2014.
  12. Notes from interview with sports psychologist Colleen Hacker, Pacific Lutheran University.
  13. The Journey of Sports Participation: 2012 Grassroots Sports Participation in America Study, Washington, DC: Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association, Fall 2012. (Note, the Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association is now the Sports & Fitness Industry Association.)
  14. Bowers, Matthew T. et al., “Assessing the Relationship Between Youth Sport Settings and Creativity in Adulthood,” Creativity Research Journal, 26(3): 314-327, 2014.
  15. Barker, Jane E., “Less-structured time in children’s daily lives predicts self-directed executive functioning,” Frontiers in Psychology, June 17, 2014.
  16. Bieghle, Aaron, “Increasing Physical Activity Through Recess: Research Brief,” Active Living Research, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, January 2012. 
  17. 2014 Sports, Fitness and Leisure Activities Topline Participation Report, Silver Spring, MD: Sports & Fitness Industry Association, 2014. 
  18. E-mail from SFIA to the Aspen Institute.
  19. Sagas, Michael, What Does the Science Say about Athletic Development in Children?, Gainesville, FL: University of Florida’s Sport Policy & Research Collaborative, 2013.
  20. Note from Tim Morehouse to the Aspen Institute.
  21. Moore, L.L. et al., “Influence of parents’ physical activity levels on activity levels of young children,” Journal of Pediatrics, 118(2):215-219, February 1991.
  22. America After 3PM: Afterschool Programs in Demand, Washington, DC: Afterschool Alliance, 2014. 
  23. Cote, J. and Hancock, D. J., “Evidence-based policies for youth sport programs,” International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, 2014.
  24. Notes from SFIA to the Aspen Institute.
  25. Issues Related to Girls and Boys Competing with and against Each Other in Sports and Physical Activity Settings: The Foundation Position, East Meadow, NY: Women’s Sports Foundation. 
  26. Note from conversation with Women’s Sports Foundation Research Director Marj Snyder, who supports mixed-gender leagues but says researchers need to learn how far from a 50-50 mix works for most boys and girls in terms of appealing to their interests. Teams dominated by one gender or the other may not interest some children.
  27. Increasing Young Latina Participation in Sports, Los Angeles, CA: Center for the Study of Latino Health and Culture, Division of General Internal Medicine, UCLA, for the LA84 Foundation, 2012.
  28. Notes from interview with Ed Foster-Simeon, CEO of the US Soccer Foundation.
  29. Notes from presentation at Illinois Youth Sports Summit by Jamie Gower, Decatur (Ill.) Park District.
  30. Peaceful Playgrounds: Using Evidence-Based Strategies and Q1 to Address Childhood Obesity in Florida, Washington, DC: National Association of County and City Health Officials, June 2011. 
  31. Spengler, John O., “Promoting Physical Activity through Shared Use of School and Community Recreational Resources,” Active Living Research, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, April 2012. 
  32. Land and Water Conservation Fund State and Local Assistance Program Handout, National Recreation and Park Association, 2014. 
  33. See the National Recreation and Park Association website: www.nrpa.org.
  34. Diez Roux, Ana V. et al., “Availability of recreational resources in minority and low socioeconomic status areas,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 34(1):16-22, 2008. 
  35. Cohen, Deborah A. et al., “Contribution of public parks to physical activity,” American Journal of Public Health, 97(3):509-514, 2007.
  36. Designed to Move: A Physical Activity Action Agenda, American College of Sports Medicine, International Council of Sport Science and Physical Education, & Nike, Inc., 2012.
  37. Budget Summary, Chicago, IL: Chicago Park District, 2013. 
  38. Notes from interview with Teresa Tamura, executive director, philanthropy and community engagement, Group Health.
  39. Fields of Dreams: Innovate and They Will Come?, Washington, DC: Aspen Institute Sports & Society Program, 2014. 
  40. Spengler, “Promoting Physical Activity through Shared Use.”
  41. See Model Joint Use Agreement Resources from ChangeLab Solutions at http://changelabsolutions.org/publications/model-JUAs-national. 
  42. Seefeldt, V. and Haubernstricker, J., “Patterns, Phases, or Stages,” in The Development of Movement Control and Coordination, edited by J.A.S. Kelso and J.E. Clark. John Wiley, 1982.
  43. United States of America – Athlete Development Statement, Colorado Springs, CO: United States Olympic Committee, April 2014.
  44. See Baseball Canada’s Rally Cap program at http://www.baseball.ca/rally-cap-initiation-program. 
  45. See USA Hockey’s American Development Model at http://www.admkids.com.
  46. Gould, Daniel, Cowburn, Ian, and Shields, Ashley, Sports for All – Summary of the Evidence of Psychological and Social Outcomes of Participation, Washington, DC: President’s Council for Fitness, Sports and Nutrition, 2014.
  47. Barnett, N. P., Smoll, F. L., & Smith, R. E., “Effects of Enhancing Coach-Athlete Relationships on Youth Sport Attrition,” The Sport Psychologist, 6:111-127, 1992. 
  48. Trends in Team Sports, Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association, Fall 2012.
  49. Notes from September 2015 conversation with Jarrett Royster, national director for urban and educational development at YMCA of the USA.
  50. Kid-Focused, Coach-Driven: What Training is Needed?, Washington, DC: Aspen Institute Sports & Society Program, 2013. 
  51. Consensus of roundtable of coaching experts convened by Project Play, 2013.
  52. SFIA survey for the Aspen Institute, 2013.
  53. espnW/Aspen Institute Project Play Survey of Parents on youth sports issues, Washington, DC: Aspen Institute Sports & Society Program, October 2014.
  54. Gessel, Luke M. et al., “Concussions among United States High School and Collegiate Athletes,” Journal of Athletic Training, 42(4):495-503, October-December 2007. 
  55. Bahkos, Lisa L. et al, “Emergency Department Visits for Concussion in Young Child Athletes,” Pediatrics, 126(3):e550-e556, September 2010.
  56. Among children between third and eighth grade who dropped out of organized or team sports, 20 percent of girls and 12 percent of boys said it was because their family was worried about them getting hurt or injured while playing sports; another 22 percent and 24 percent, respectively, said they dropped out because they had a health problem or injury. See: Sabo, D. and Veliz, P., Go Out and Play: Youth Sports in America, East Meadow, NY: Women’s Sports Foundation, 2008. 
  57. Ferguson, RW., SAFE Kids Worldwide Analysis of CPSC Data, 2013.
  58. Bailes, Anthony L. et al., “Role of subconcussion in repetitive mild traumatic brain injury,” Journal of Neurosurgery, 119(5):1235-1245, November 2013.
  59. Sports-Related Concussions in Youth: Improving the Science, Changing the Culture, Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine of the National Academies of Sciences, October 2013. 
  60. Note from Stefan Duma to the Aspen Institute.