A comprehensive list of citations for all the figures used within the Project Play Report, "Sport for All, Play for Life: A Playbook to Get Every Kid in the Game."


  1. 2013 Sports & Fitness Industry Association (SFIA) data, for the Aspen Institute.

  2. 2013 SFIA data, for the Aspen Institute.

  3. Sabo and Veliz, Go Out and Play.(56)

  4. Sagas, Michael and Cunningham, George, Sport Participation Rates among Underserved Youth, Gainesville, FL: University of Florida’s Sport Policy & Research Collaborative, 2014; Sagas, Michael, What Does the Science Say about Athletic Development in Children?, Gainesville, FL: University of Florida’s Sport Policy & Research Collaborative, 2013; Trends in Team Sports;(48) SFIA notes to the Aspen Institute; Sabo and Veliz, Go Out and Play;(56) among other sources.

  5. Conceptual model developed in consultation with Project Play Advisory Group.

  6. Ratey, J. J., and Hagerman, E., Spark: The Revolutionary New Science of Exercise and the Brain, Little, Brown & Company, 2014; Moore, L. et al., “Does early physical activity predict body fat change throughout childhood?,” Preventative Medicine, 37:10-17, 2003; Grissom, J., “Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement,” Journal of Exercise Physiology, 8(1), 11-25, 2005; Staurowsky, E.J., “Her Life Depends On It: Sport, Physical Activity, and the Health and Well-Being of American Girls and Women,” East Meadow, NY: Women’s Sports Foundation, 2009; Jones-Palm, D.H. and Palm, J., “Physical Activity and Its Impact on Health Behavior among Youth,” 2005; Lieras, C., “Do skills and behaviors in high school matter? The contribution of noncognitive factors in explaining differences in educational attainment and earnings,” Social Science Research, 27:888-902, 2008; Stevenson, B., “Beyond the Classroom: Using Title IX to Measure the Return to High School Sports,” Review of Economics and Statistics, 92:284-301, 2010; Cawley, J. and Meyerhoefer, C., “The medical care costs of obesity: An instrumental variables approach,” Journal of Health Economics, 31(1), 219-230, January 2012; Proper, K.I. et al., “Dose-response relation between physical activity and sick leave,” British Journal of Sports Medicine, 40(2), 173-178, 2006; 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, United States Department of Health and Human Services, 2008; Olshansky, S.J. et al., “A Potential Decline in Life Expectancy in the United States in the 21st Century,” New England Journal of Medicine, 352(1):1138-1145, March 17, 2005; Fires, J., “Physical activity, the compression of morbidity, and the health of the elderly,” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 89, 64-68, 1996; Moore, L.L. et al., “Influence of Parents’ Physical Activity Levels on Activity Levels of Young Children,” Journal of Pediatrics, 118(2):215-219, 1991.

  7. Visek et al., “Fun Integration Theory…(11)

  8. Ginsburg, Kenneth R., “The Importance of Playing in Promoting Healthy Child Development and Maintaining Strong Parent-Child Bonds,” Pediatrics, 119(1):182-191, January 2007. 

  9. University of Florida Sport Policy & Research Collaborative.

  10. SFIA, analysis provided for the Aspen Institute, 2013.

  11. Courtesy of the United States Tennis Association.

  12. USA Hockey’s American Development Model.

  13. Visek et al., “Fun Integration Theory…”(11)

  14. SFIA, custom data for the Aspen Institute in annual household survey, 2013.

  15. U.S. Health in International Perspective: Shorter Lives, Poorer Health, National Academies Press, 2013.

  16. Hillman, Charles et al., “The Effect of Acute Treadmill Walking on Cognitive Control and Academic Achievement in Preadolescent Children,” Neuroscience, 159:1044-1054, 2009.